The Preliminary Programme
This four day, multi streamed programme features ministerial and global business dialogue sessions and strategic panel sessions alongside 28 strategic sessions. 82 Technical sessions make up the newly expanded technical conference, addressing the complete value chain from exploration and production through to distribution and will highlight new technologies and industry developments.
Further speakers are in the process of being invited and this agenda is subject to change and alteration as and when is agreed.
Gill Kernick and Jim Wetherbee argue that the commercial, reputational and even moral case for the prevention of major accidents is clear. Yet, investigations reveal their ‘awful sameness’ highlighting our inability to learn. They will address how people, rather than being part of the problem, can be our greatest asset in preventing catastrophic events. Two of the adverse conditions in complex socio-technical systems that contribute to accidents will be explored: •Allowing the violation of rules, policies and procedures, and •Leaders not sufficiently listening to, engaging with or caring for their people
Whilst it is clear that liquidity in Asian LNG trading is increasing and confidence in reported prices is improving, a truly liquid LNG traded hub in Asia, which is suitable for indexing long-term LNG contracts, remains years away.
The interesting part of this development is not how long it will take for a traded hub to fully develop but the new challenges faced by LNG buyers and sellers now. Buyers can see change coming and are increasingly unwilling to commit to long-term contracts which do not permit flexibility, for example, in the event of downstream gas market liberalisation. For LNG sellers this presents a number of challenges with regards to developing an LNG marketing and business development strategy.
Gas Strategies will address these issues and explore options for industry participants.
What does the so-called "Asian Century" mean for the future of Asia’s gas companies? Can they leverage their strong market positions to evolve across the value chain – or would it be better for them to limit themselves to home markets? Will they continue to lag behind the major Western companies in technological innovation and competitive strength? Why have they missed out on key developments in the industry in past years? The author draws on his experience with Shell and Japan Petroleum, in the contrasting gas markets of India, Japan and other countries to answer these questions.
LNG shipping markets are changing. More vessels, more product and a wider market in which to sell LNG makes an interesting market. Volatility in pricing, demand and production all adds into the mix and with economics dictating how the market will evolve, could this mean a longer term return for the shipowner?
LNG short-term and spot sales now comprise nearly 30% of the total. The LNG short-term market is more complicated nowadays, with various pricing mechanisms in different regions. We expect short-term and spot trades will continue to be a major part of the LNG market and will become increasingly dynamic, with flexible supplies from the US, Qatar and other regions competing for sales to high-value buyers. The authors will discuss the interaction between buyers and sellers in different regions and test how the key elements might drive the short-term and spot trades in the future.
A change in market trends, affecting all European Union markets, is clearly going on towards:
- •Larger volatility
- •An increasing weight for traders
- •Henry Hub increasingly becoming a Price driver in European Gas
Thus, for a gas shipper -intending both retailing and wholesaling- to remain competitive, it needs to have wisely managed its gas balance:
- •Flexibility in volume and destination
- •Diversified portfolio can be achieved in terms of price indexation: TTF/HH/Brent
The ultimate competitive advantage will thus lay on properly assessing the right moment for term purchases, by anticipating the turning point that will bring back a bullish, seller’s market.
LNG Spot trading Pure spot trades are different from short term deals (<5 years) in negotiation procedures and prices. We provide an analysis of historical spot trades to put the evolution of spot trading in perspective and step away from market consensus. Discoveries reflect the growth of portfolio players, the creation of a secondary market, and the emergence of trading houses in the LNG market or the influx of regional markets. Lastly, we provide a forecast on spot volumes in the mid-term and some considerations regarding liquidity and whether this growth of spot trades means a greater commoditization of LNG.
The last few years have seen significant changes in how the LNG market operates, with more volume contracted on a shorter-term or spot basis and with increased flexibility. With this changing market comes both new opportunities and risks. The presentation examines the impact of these changes on contract pricing, hedging and optimization strategies and discusses whether additional adjustments should be made for counterparty and funding risks, as seen in other markets. We conclude with how these changes can be used in determining whether your contracts are at fair market value and how this determination could be used in arbitration proceedings.
To achieve the Paris Agreement target, a major redesign of the energy system is required. This study explores the role of gas in a fully decarbonised energy system by 2050. We conclude that it is possible by 2050 to scale up renewable gas (biomethane and renewable hydrogen) production in the EU to a quantity of 122 billion cubic metres and that using this gas with existing gas infrastructure, smartly combined with renewable electricity in sectors where it adds most value, can lead to €138 billion societal cost savings annually compared to decarbonisation without a role for renewable gas.
This paper will review what companies have done thus far to position themselves in the climate change debate, including examples of core business strategies, and will explore the challenges that O&G companies are facing as a result of energy transition. The paper will identify and assess specific risks and opportunities that exist for both management teams and their shareholders and discuss the implications of various strategies. The paper will offer a deep dive to address the following issues: Strategy, Shareholder Concerns, People, and the Impact on the Power Sector.
The Future of Natural Gas in China and India. Critical Drivers and Challenges Accelerated reforms and focused policies aimed at increasing the role of gas in the energy mix combine to improve the natural gas demand outlook of China and India. In this paper, the International Association CEDIGAZ provides its revised medium and long term outlook for natural gas demand and supply in these two markets and analyses the main drivers and challenges surrounding these prospects.
For twenty years India has been viewed as a significant market for LNG, to date only four LNG import terminals have been completed. Only two are operating at their full potential. In Q4.2018 gas from the Cape Anne LNG FSRU will start to flow by a new pipeline from the port of Jaigard to Dabhol where the pipeline will connect with GAIL’s gas pipeline network. This presentation / paper looks at the development H-Energy’s LNG import terminal project, the technical challenges in developing the project and perhaps provide some insight as to why so few LNG import terminals have been completed in India.
Following a severe slowdown in 2015, a difficult recovery in 2016, China became, once again, a supply and infrastructure constrained gas market with double-digit growth.
Industries switched from coal to gas, gas power plants in Jiangsu and Guangdong, fertilizer producers in Sichuan basin, they were all crying for more gas. However, the three NOCs were reluctant to fully match it with supply as they were selling imported gas/LNG at loss under the regulated provincial-gate prices.
This presentation aims to explain the sustainability of China growth, LNG’s role in future supply mix, and its impact on global flow and prices.
Thailand is a country that imports energy and mainly rely on natural gas. PTT Public Company Limited (“PTT”), the National Oil Company of Thailand, plans to pursue the development of an LNG hub in Thailand. One of key competitive advantages is growing gas demand, estimated to surpass 20 MTPA by 2030. Moreover, Thailand is located in close proximity to a number of emerging gas markets. PTT is currently in the evaluation process of the key requirements to facilitate and enable success of the LNG hub. In this paper, PTT shall provide pointed updates on several initiatives undertaken, which include TPA/regulatory analysis and review, LNG hub services and unbundling, and potential financial/fiscal inducements.
New LNG import terminal developments are faced with one common challenges, bankable gas demand, which will directly impact investment. Liquid-fuelled power plants are typically too small to be viably served on a standalone basis because they are often remotely located, and cut-off from the main grid. This means a large portion of the market is left unserved, unless an innovative approach is used to connect the potential users to the import terminal. By aggregating customer demand, more projects could become viable, and attractive to investors, and the market’s enormous potential could be unlocked. This presentation will discuss the benefits of AG&P’s demand aggregation model, and how it plans to leverage its standardized infrastructure designs and modular approach towards terminal development.
Emerging economies are now turning to LNG as an affordable and reliable source of energy to compensate a declining domestic gas production or to displace fuel oil imports or coal-fired power generation. The advent of floating regasification terminals has cut significantly the cost and duration of building an import terminal but this is not the only enabling factor: LNG portfolio players are able to supply LNG at very competitive prices by optimising the entire supply chain, while guaranteeing both security of supply and flexibility.
It is widely known that South East Asia is the place where the largest energy demand growth is expected, however, it’s been years since many discussions came out about LNG receiving terminals and LNG import in this region and not so many projects have flown yet. This implies that there are something missing to transform the growing energy demand to LNG. This paper points out those missing pieces and proposes the solution to bridge the gap and enable investors, international LNG players to transform the demand to LNG.
Althought railway is the most efficient form of land transport, has gradually lost ground in terms of ‘modal share’ to less efficient technologies
From 2014, UIC approved an specific ‘Roadmap’ in order to recover “modal share” in an sustainable way, a roadmap conditioned by the long term and in most cases low profitability of the electrification process, and the short term impact of diesel technologies.
In this scenario, Natural gas is the most competitive altermative (from a qualitative and quantitative point of view) and the only alternative fuel that is available for attending any traction requirement yet, just in the way a Spanish consortium is demonstrating in Spain with an complete portfolio of projects, the most advanced of these: ‘raiLNG-DMU’ line (passengers), last January became to be the world's first experience of utilizing LNG as a fuel in a railway passenger unit.
Cheniere has led the United States’ transition to a net gas exporter through the development of two Gulf Coast LNG export facilities. With more than two years of operating experience at Sabine Pass Liquefaction, Cheniere can provide a unique perspective on the U.S. gas market and best practices for gas supply procurement for LNG exports.
This presentation will review Cheniere’s recent experience in the U.S. gas market and describe the economic and operational benefits of Cheniere’s full-service business model. It will also address common misconceptions regarding the price impact of US LNG exports and discuss why natural gas reserve ownership is not required to guarantee surety of US LNG supply.
With market fundamentals looking increasingly tight post 2020, there is renewed momentum behind LNG investments, including in the US. But the second wave of North American LNG is looking different from the first. Fixed fees and de-risked developer economics characterized the first wave, placing market risks in the hands of tollers and offtakers. Though the supply situation in North America remains compelling, the dynamics and shifting market fundamentals create uncertainty for unfamiliar participants. LNG developers are being pushed to evolve their commercial offerings to redistribute risks. Which offerings will succeed? What is the impact of the evolving fundamental landscape? And who will ultimately catch the next wave?
The projects in the first wave of LNG exports from North America are in operation or under construction. Into this brave new world comes the second wave of proposed North American LNG export projects. Is this more of the same, or has the model changed? The presentation will address new contractual structures available for the second wave of LNG exports from North America and discuss steps for aligning buyers’ and sellers’ interests to promote a stable, long-term supply of LNG
The continuous North American shale growth has flipped the role of the region from an importer to a major exporter of gas. Rystad Energy sees North American shale reaching nearly 1.2 Tcm in 2025 driven by developments in the current core acreages. And with planned LNG projects amounting to more than 550 mtpa, the trend is not set to slow down. However, as old incumbents and new countries are throwing themselves further into the LNG space, there will undoubtedly be questions about the competitiveness of North American projects in the market in the medium term.
Top seal is a critical risk for shallow gas prospects. Hydrocarbon charge is also often poorly understood. Improving the quantification of these risks is critical. Hydrocarbon producing basins are often dominated by vertical hydrocarbon migration. This migration is detected in seismic as zones of vertically chaotic, low energy data called chimneys. A method has been developed to detect chimneys using a supervised neural network. The morphology of chimneys above prospective reservoirs provides clues to top seal risk; morphology below the reservoir indicates charge risk. A case study is presented of a shallow gas discovery in the Dutch North Sea.
Wide-azimuth data over the carbonaceous Jurassic Kimmeridgian interval, in the northeast shallow waters petroleum region of the Mexican Gulf of Mexico, was divided into six azimuthal sectors and conditioned for multi-azimuthal seismic inversion to obtain elastic properties related to fractures such as anisotropy and fast shear impedance azimuth. At the same time, pore type concentrations were estimated using rock physics techniques. Finally, physical links between pore type concentrations, lithology and elastic properties were established to obtain volumetric distributions of best storage facies, pore types and lithology. This approach allowed PEMEX to validate their JSK conceptual models and develop a production strategy.
Seismic Amplitude-Vs-Offset inversion is used to extract rock property information from pre-stack migrated seismic data. In conventional techniques the data-model is based on primary reflection coefficients convolved with a wavelet. The link to rock properties is through the reflection coefficients, for which linearised version of the Zoeppritz coefficients are used. The rock properties that naturally emerge from such a process are the acoustic impedance and the shear impedance. Once these are known, relationships can be invoked that relate the impedances to porosity, rock-type and hydro-carbon saturation.
In this paper we present a new AVO technique that uses a data-model that is not based on primary reflection coefficients, but on a solution of the full elastic wave-equation. The advantage of such a scheme is that all complexity in the wave-propagation over the target interval, such as multiple internal scattering and mode-conversions, are fully accounted for in the inversion, rather than being neglected. Energy that is treated as noise by the conventional methods is useful signal for the wave-equation-bases method, leading to higher resolution and robustness against noise.
Another advantage of the wave-equation based approach is that it leads to a different earth parameterisation than the impedances obtained from the conventional reflectivity based techniques. The wave-equation based method naturally inverts for bulk-modulus and shear-modulus, or rather their inverses: the compressibility and the shear compliance. These properties are much closer to the rock properties required, such as porosity, hydro-carbon saturation and sand/shale discrimination.
In the paper we will give a brief introduction into the way wave-equation based inversion is applied and the method will be demonstrated with the help of two case studies illustrating the advantages mentioned above.
Sleipner is the first and longest running industrial scale CO2 storage project. In 1996 the first CO2 was injected into the Utsira Formation above the Sleipner Gas field in the North Sea. In the period 1996 – 2014 eight repeated seismic time-lapse surveys have been acquired. More than 150 papers have been published on Sleipner CO2 monitoring.
In the present paper we apply a new AVO inversion technology to the 2008 seismic vintage, with the purpose of obtaining quantitative predictions of the amount of CO2 injected. The new technology is based on the full elastic wave-equation, as opposed to the conventional primary reflectivity based approach. The advantage of using the full elastic wave-equation is that all internal multiple scattering and mode-conversions over the target interval in the data are properly accounted for, whereas they are neglected by the conventional techniques. It will be demonstrated in the paper that inside the CO2 plume there is strong internal multiple scattering of the seismic waves, which would make any attempt at quantitative interpretation using primary reflections only futile.
A single well located outside the CO2 plume is used for seismic-to-well matching and calibration. The property inverted for is the compressibility of the porous reservoir rock. The translation of compressibility to CO2 saturation is performed with the help of Gassmann's Equation. With the known porosity of the reservoir and an estimated CO2 density, we can now calculate the amount of CO2 in every pixel of the reservoir volume. The inversion results in a cube of compressibility values. After applying a cut-off in the compressibility that discriminates between reservoir and non-reservoir, a geobody is obtained that can directly be integrated to yield the amount of CO2 present. The amount predicted agreed within 10% of the amount of CO2 known to have been injected op to 2008.
Given the accuracy with which the amount of CO2-in-place has been predicted, this method is also very promising for prediction of gas-in-place, or oil-in-place, in the development phase of hydro-carbon prospects.
Seismic inversion is a quintessential workflow used to estimate elastic properties. Conventional seismic data can lack lower frequencies up to 8-12 Hz and to account for the missing frequencies, a low-frequency model is input to the seismic inversion process. It is generated using simple interpolation of well data, guided by horizons and seismic velocities, and usually doesn’t capture the reservoir heterogeneity accurately. We present an innovative and comprehensive workflow using advanced geological modeling, iteratively guided by multiple trends, to build a robust low-frequency model. This workflow generated inversion outputs, less biased by hard data and interpolation artefacts.
To better evaluate the pore structure of heterogeneous carbonate rocks, this study analyzed the corresponding relationship between the fractal characteristics of capillary pressure curves and pore connectivity. Then, the T2 relaxation criterion of different pore diameter components were reasonably determined, combining with the features of nuclear magnetic resonance T2 spectrums. Combined with the fuzzy clustering algorithm, a new classification method was established using proportions of different pore components as sensitive parameters. The results showed that the proposed method was more reasonable and effective for the evaluation of pore structure and can significantly improve the accuracy of subsequent permeability calculation.
Time-lapse seismic surveys have proven extremely valuable to guide reservoir management decisions. Changes in seismic reflection amplitudes can provide information on fluid contact movements or pressure changes, whereas variations in travel-times of seismic signals can provide information on geomechanical effects such as reservoir compaction, overburden strain and subsidence. Here, we present a new methodology to obtain reservoir strain changes via geomechanical inversion of seismic time-lapse time-strains. If a linear pressure-strain relationship is assumed, the volumetric strains can be translated into reservoir pressure changes. We demonstrate the method on an example from the Danish North Sea and discuss some observations.
The paper presents workflow to provide recovery of fracture characteristics from seismic data. We present discrete fracture modelling technique that properly describes fracture models on seismic scale and we propose combination of diffraction imaging and topological analysis of the diffraction images that provides recovery of discrete fractures modelling parameters. Numerical examples on synthetic models demonstrate detailed reliable reconstruction of the statistical characteristics of the fracture corridors.
Seismic data can be interpreted by two main methods; manual interpretation by geoscientist guided by algorithms, or by interpretation of seismic bodies using automatic algorithms. We have examined the second approach, because when interpretation is done using algorithms, the interpretations are comparable. This requires a workflow for extraction of seismic data from multiple synthetic seismic models. Different seismic attributes are calculated for these models and the seismic attributes are clustered using alternative clustering algorithms. To achieve good clustering results, the data must be correctly selected and conditioned, and the appropriate seismic attributes and clustering algorithms must be determined. These decisions are discussed in this study.
Accurate structural delineation is very difficult in complex compressional tectonic regimes because of the challenge of seismic processing with large scale thrust faults. The high-resolution borehole image is commonly the first choice for structural framework construction in such environments. However, only one fault can be handled in one structural zone in previous traditional methods including one of most popular industry software application and the formation layering could not be displayed in a consistent cross-section direction. Moreover, it is very common that there are multiple faults developed in a horizontal well, and we cannot build a smooth structural model including multiple faults in one structural zone. We propose a novel approach to build a two-dimensional structural model with multiple faults from borehole image dips.
Reservoir parameters of gas hydrate bearing sediments are essential for reservoir characterization. In this study, we propose an inverse elastic-electrical rock physics modeling method to estimate reservoir parameters from elastic and electrical data. This method first generates the 3D constrained cubes of elastic and electrical properties in reservoir parameters domain. Then, prediction of reservoir parameters can be obtained by the isosurface intersections. Finally, we implement this approach to the well logs. Results show that the estimations match well with core samples. Based on these results, we conclude that inverse elastic-electrical rock physics modeling method is feasible for reservoir parameter estimation.
The downturn in oil prices since late 2014 raised the profile of technology within many E&P organizations. The result has been an increasing focus on operational technologies that can help to lower costs and raise capital efficiency with emerging automation and digital technologies as one of the biggest winners. As the industry will return its attention towards production increase and exploration, the uptake of these technologies is expected to increase rapidly. This paper highlights the main impact of emerging digital technologies and discussed case studies of deployments.
Singapore LNG Corporation (SLNG), which is a strategic and key infrastructure of Singapore, plays an important role in addressing nation’s energy challenges of energy security, economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability. This paper discusses the motivation behind building the world’s largest LNG storage tank, with an emphasis on the challenges encountered at various stages of building the engineering marvel and a brief analysis on the likely impact for future.
There have been numerous developments and continuous evolution in the Natural Gas Liquefaction market over the past several years; including the introduction of new process cycles, a continued increase in train production capacity, interest in smaller capacity trains, the introduction of floating LNG (FLNG) facilities, rapid development in North America, and further arctic development. FLNG, as well as geographic, environmental, and economic factors on many land-based projects, has led to compact plant layouts and a move to modular construction methods. This paper describes these changes and the innovations in design and fabrication that will meet these new requirements and challenges.
The world first installation of a large scale lithium-ion battery energy storage system on its Goodwyn A offshore platform has positioned Woodside as an early adopter of battery storage technology in the oil and gas industry. Woodside aims to accelerate scaled application on larger oil and gas assets. The installation of the 1 MWh battery will reduce the need for spinning reserve on its Goodwyn A’s power generation system. As a result the platform’s fuel gas use will be reduced by around 7.5 metric tonnes per day, allowing incremental LNG production and delivering an estimated 5% decrease in CO2 emissions.
The A-frame Ambient Air Vaporizer (AAV) concept is a novel vaporizer in which an intermediate pressurized fluid (CO2) transfers the heat from ambient air to the LNG, in a closed thermosyphon loop. The system combines a fin fan heat exchanger to evaporate the CO2 and a tube bundle where heat from condensing CO2 is used to vaporize and super heat the LNG. The A-frame offers a significant reduction in plot space compared to ambient air vaporizers, lack of necessity of seawater unlike open rack vaporizers and lack of necessity of fuel to provide vaporization duty unlike submerged combustion vaporizers.
This paper is based on several pre-FEED studies executed to prove technical feasibility and economic attractiveness for Concrete GBS based near shore LNG solutions. The main focus has been to develop flexible design solutions for high production capacities, multiple LNG technologies, compressor driver alternatives with high focus on HSSE, winterization, operability and availability for onshore or offshore gas fields in shallow water regions. The studies have demonstrated that the GBS LNG Solution for Shallow Arctic/sub Arctic Regions is feasible both economically and technically and has been chosen as the selected case for large scale Arctic development.
For the over the past 5 years Bechtel and Chart have been working together to develop a wide range of solutions for using Charts IPSMR® process to develop midscale LNG configurations. During the development and engineering we have uncovered both expected and unexpected benefits for the midscale solution. Overall the Bechtel-Chart IPSMR® LNG solutions have shown to be able to be flexible in design, while keeping capital cost down and kw/TPA low as well.
PN-1 membrane technology is unique in combining two different types of membrane fibers in one single membrane module to reduce the overall membrane requirement by 10% and offers overall CAPEX and OPEX savings. This has been commercially deployed in a large gas processing plant in South East Asia which is showing significant value in addressing high CO2 gas and produce pipeline quality gas under variable inlet gas conditions.
Optimizing LNG Plant energy use reduces operating cost, and for feed-limited plants allows increased production without increasing upstream capacity. The improvement opportunity is substantial, but there are significant challenges to overcome, including tight integration of process and energy systems, and global shortage of experienced LNG plant staff.
Digitalization offers new ways to overcome these challenges. we show how the latest generation of digital twin is now capable of monitoring, managing and optimizing energy use across an entire facility,. By Cloud hosting digital twins a new world of collaboration becomes possible, to leverage worldwide talent and build up site skills
Ambient conditions have a significant impact on the performance of gas turbines used to drive refrigeration compressors for LNG liquefaction. One way for operators to eliminate this issue and stabilize LNG production is with turbine inlet air chilling (TIAC), which maintains a constant inlet air temperature. This presentation examines the benefits of turbine cooling technology highlighted by examples from our recent project at Cheniere Energy’s Corpus Christi Liquefaction facility.
Modular construction for Multi train plant: Liquefin™ Technology value : To achieve lower CAPEX and shorter time to market, Air Liquide, LNG liquefaction technology provider, and Samsung Engineering, leader EPC in large scale projects, engaged in an open collaboration that overcame traditional challenges linked to modularization and standardization. A 2 Mtpy pre-engineered solution built around Liquefin™ technology - the most efficient liquefaction technology for large plant thanks to an innovative combination of DMR processes and Brazed Aluminum Plate Fin Heat Exchangers (PFHE) - was developed which could support fast track project development while optimizing the general engineering to drive down the costs. Our Technical paper aims at quantifying benefits of proactive implementation of a major innovation into a modular approach.
The 5.25 mtpa Cove Point LNG facility simultaneously functioned as an import terminal while undergoing construction to build the export terminal. This was achieved through the management of boil-off-gas (BOG) by balancing the BOG generation with the fuel gas demand. We also focused on balancing the power requirements as well as the utilization of pipeline for bi-directional gas management. With an emphasis on implementing SIS strategies, including the resulting ESD actions and managing utilities through appropriate layers of protection, simultaneous operations were implemented safely throughout the facility.
The LNG market is now experiencing drastic changes due to the needs of emerging buyers and new environmental thresholds. This new scenario demands innovation in sales and trading strategies and leadership to drive and inspire change. As a leading global LNG operator, Gas Natural Fenosa has jointly developed with Connect LNG a revolutionary solution to address the recent challenges of the market. Direct Link LNG is the first Floating LNG Ship to Shore System which enables LNG transfer from ship to shore without the need of expensive fixed infrastructures, with a minimal environmental impact. This new system makes LNG accessible to locations where traditional supply schemes were not economically or environmentally viable. The solution is a single adaptable plug-and-play product which ensures connectivity to all of today's ports and vessels worldwide. A new robust, scalable, fast-to-implement and compelling model designed for small to medium scale volumes which could represent the key to open new markets around the World. With Direct Link LNG, Gas Natural Fenosa is taking a step forward by becoming a driving force in transforming the LNG market. A demonstration of the innovative spirit of the Company that will drive our commitment to address any new energy challenge that may arise
Cheniere and our EPC partner Bechtel have successfully built four 4.5 mtpa LNG Trains at the Sabine Pass Liquefaction project in Louisiana, and are now constructing a fifth LNG Train at Sabine Pass, and three more near Corpus Christi, Texas. These types of megaprojects are usually substantially over budget and months behind schedule, but not so with Cheniere’s. What Cheniere has achieved is even more impressive when the many challenges encountered are considered. We call these challenges dragons, and this presentation will highlight just a few we faced, and how we slayed them all, on time and on budget.
SHI will present some essential Lessons Learned from FLNG projects to share and implement them to the similar project for better project execution. Firstly, Overall Lessons Learned gathered during the execution period and summarized analysis results will be presented to bring insights into the successful FLNG construction. Secondly, essential construction enhancement, which SHI has internally chosen from the Lessons Learned database and implemented to other FLNG projects, will be shared. Finally, SHI will share its technical improvement named SEVAS (SHI Enterprise Visualization And Simulation) to achieve the best effectiveness in the project execution with 4D based process control.
Building LNG export facilities involves huge capital outlays that likewise carry huge risks for both the owner and contractor associated with the performance of the plant. New process technologies are being introduced, new compressor drivers are being developed, new solutions are being explored, all in the name of being the most competitive LNG provider in a very tight market. Ultimately, when the START button is pushed, the plant must work and all performance and operational guarantees must be satisfied. This paper discusses performance risk and provides suggested approaches to mitigation.
For this presentation, the term “Behavioural Risk” is used to describe the behaviours that are driven by contract types which are often opposing when viewed from both the client and contractor perspective.
Without the lens of behavioural risk, the commercial mitigations for both fixed price and reimbursable contract types often fail to address client / contractor actions which can re-assign commercial risk from one party to the other.
Through the use of multiple case studies, this presentation explores behavioural risk in an attempt to understand how we can better assign contract type for the successful execution of projects.
Before the oil price crash, most global-scale LNG projects failed to meet their objectives. Some were years late and billions of dollars over budget. Reasons include failures in organization and leadership. Although project execution improved, the leadership and development of people, culture and organization has not. The next wave of projects will be at least as complex, with multiple challenges in supply chains, remote locations, international joint ventures, first-of-a-kind technology and more. What are you doing to prepare for challenges that are more than technical and require excellent leadership, an adaptive culture and a resilient organization?
As the LNG market has dramatically grown and market forces and client preferences evolved, ConocoPhillips and Bechtel mutually agreed to change strategies and pursue LNG projects independently. ConocoPhillips now offers the Optimized Cascade® Process to qualified LNG EPC contractors. ConocoPhillips has advanced its new innovative multi-contractor licensing approach by developing a comprehensive Licensing Design Package and is engaging and contracting with multiple EPC contractors that can design, build and maintain OCP plants. This change provides more choices to license the OCP and how that will benefit the various stakeholders in future LNG projects and the overall LNG market.
Blockchain has the capability to enable energy companies to reduce costs, improve process efficiency, eliminate IT security risks and enable new business models. Much more than a technology to automate business transactions, blockchain enables a new model for trust by establishing new types of transactional relationships between businesses via smart contracts, certifications and digital compliance. During this session we will explore several real-life examples of how companies are benefiting from blockchain technology to enable Energy industry executives to understand how best to extract value from these technologies and develop an adoption strategy to take advantage of the many possibilities.
The paper will focus on the following issues:
- Navigation risk assessment of LNG bunkering vessels in port area
- Availability of LNG bunkering standards. China MSA is developing regulations on navigation of LNG bunkering vessels and ship-to-ship LNG bunkering operation.
- Feasibility and economy of LNG bunkering vessel logistics chain, The LNG price, the distance from the home station to the site of bunkering operations and other factors.
- Safety area assessment for simultaneous operations (SIMOPS) of LNG bunkering and container loading/unloading
The safety area for SIMOPS is proposed based on the three-dimensional CFD quantitative risk assessment tool.
The International Maritime Organization has recently implemented the IGF Code as a major international standard setting the bar for safety of shipboard fuel systems using LNG and other alternative low-flashpoint fuels. The U.S. Coast Guard’s recently-updated policy letter on design of U.S.-Flag commercial LNG-fueled vessels provides a useful “case study” for discussing key considerations a Flag State must evaluate in implementing the IGF Code. This presentation explores key provisions of the IGF Code from the perspective of the United States as a Flag Administration, and how they address the unique safety risks posed by using LNG as a shipboard fuel.
New level of ecological and economic solutions by use of LNG and VOC as Fuel New shuttle tanker concept developed by TEEKAY in close cooperation with Wärtsilä with use of high quality equipment and systems in new and innovative ways. VOC recovery plant is installed to avoid harmful CO2 emission from cargo tanks resulting in yearly reduction of 42% of CO2eq. or equal to 22 000 petrol cars. With LNG as primary fuel, VOC will be mixed with LNG and used as valuable fuel for the engines. New concept represents an absolute game-changer by enabling shuttle tanker to utilize its own waste gas rather than releasing it to atmosphere.
How safe is safe enough? The marine bunkering of ships with LNG as an industry is in its infancy. There are no accepted and well defined industry rules and practices for defining safety zones around LNG bunkering operations. What should these rules be for safety distances or exclusions zones? Is a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) always required? Are SIMOPs impacted or prohibited and how will this effect economics? These are the key questions that the small but growing LNG bunkering business are discussing and as yet there are no established norms. The Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF) therefore decided that, via a working group from within its membership, it needed to create a rigorous methodology based on LNG industry experimental research and theoretical understanding to explore these issues. This paper looks at the findings of SGMF’s study undertaken by DNV GL and how this is demonstrated by the BASiL (Bunkering Area Safety information for LNG) software.
Three new bunker vessels in Europe have now successfully completed numerous LNG bunkering transfers providing new operation experience. The paper will cover bunkering operations, critical systems on the LNG bunker vessels, the LNG fuel gas system and the transfer system. The bunkering process has been analyzed with numerical simulations. TGE Marine has been involved in the design of the above mentioned bunker vessels and supplied the fuel gas system for several clients of these vessels. The paper will compare the design approach with the operational experience and also address the challenges of larger low pressure tanks entering the market.
The use of LNG as a marine fuel is experiencing significant growth in a new small-scale LNG market, which in turn demands for a new fleet of LNG carriers’ capacity.
The Mugardos LNG terminal, operated by Reganosa, is geostrategically positioned both on the shipping and LNG routes, specifically regarding the Atlantic Maritime Corridor.
In view of these capabilities and the commercial opportunity, Reganosa performed the design of an LNG bunker and feeder vessel, with the Spanish engineering company Ghenova as main contractor, based on GTT membrane technology for volume & weight efficiency.
GE’s modified jet engines, known as aeroderivative gas turbines, are compact, lightweight, produce low emissions, and offer many other advantages for commercial ship owners. Teaming with some of the world’s leading shipyards, GE brings its COmbined Gas turbine Electric and Steam (COGES) system onboard newbuilds and retrofits of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carriers, and containerships and Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)-fueled ferries. Two key developments in the marine industry favor the use of gas turbines for ship power and propulsion: increasingly stringent emissions regulations and the advent of LNG as a viable marine fuel. GE's marine engines are fuel-flexible, capable of burning diverse fuels including natural gas, LNG, LPG, Marine Gas Oil (MGO) and other bio-synthetic paraffinic kerosene blends.
Repsol has originated 13 LNG bunkering spot transactions in Spain, providing supply for different types of vessels. Safety has always been the key driver for these operations, each operation builds upon the last providing a platform for the constant evolution of leaning and continuous improvement. The paper describes all required phases and tasks to be carried out for each single operation, stressing on the safety aspects that may promote LNG as a fuel for vessels: ‒LNG bunkering systems ‒Planning procedure for a spot and recurring supplies ‒Elements and activities related to operation safety ‒Future developments
Liquefaction Cycles for Floating LNG: From Concept to Reality Selecting the optimal liquefaction cycle for floating LNG (FLNG) is key to project success. Factors such as sea motion, space limitations, feed gas compositions, and heightened safety concerns have driven the development of alternate liquefaction cycles for these unique challenges. The paper will describe key features of the different liquefaction cycles available, and how leveraging relevant land based and offshore experience is essential to the successful implementation of new liquefaction technologies. Finally, this paper will describe a new liquefaction technology that offers distinct advantages for FLNG and how experience gained in the design and operation of the nitrogen refrigeration LNG Process on PFLNG 1 will be leveraged to enable its successful implementation.
ExxonMobil has developed the High Pressure Expander Process (HPXP™) technology. The process uses a single phase methane refrigerant stream operating at distinguishingly high pressures followed by a single phase nitrogen refrigerant stream. Process simulations have demonstrated the HPXP™ technology to have a specific power similar to that of commercially available single mixed refrigerant processes. The high efficiency of the HPXP™ technology distinguishes it from other expander-based technologies which are 10 to 25% less efficient. The capacity of a train using the HPXP™ technology can be double that of other expander-based processes (3 to 4 MTA) without needing parallel equipment.
History of FLNG development in JGC with its vast experiences with On-shore LNG Plant and specific technical developments and considerations will be discussed. JGC is undertaking for PFLNG2 Project (Malaysia), Coral FLNG Project (Mozambique) and Newage FLNG (Congo). JGC conducted study for new business model to use high H2S and CO2 content feed by using combination of Gas Processing Plant and Floating LNG. Technical development will be discussed including: - Selection of Process technology - Effect of motion movement - Equipment design - Refrigerant compressor and its driver - Plot layout - HSSE studies - LNGC Approach study - Loading facilities - Module construction, installation, integration - Towing, mooring, hook-up, commissioning and gas trial
INTECSEA’s Low Motion Floating (LMF) technology represents a technical and commercial step change for development in deepwater and harsh environment locations. The LMF innovation uses conventional components in a new way. All components are field proven with the highest technology readiness level. The LMF has been matured to “Project Ready” level over a number of years, including model testing, and in 2017 received Approval in Principle from DnV.
The LMF enables use of steel catenary risers with dry trees without the accompanying limitations on storage and topsides capacity.
The SSY system is a completely Submerged Swivel Yoke system, connected to the bow of the FRSU/FLNG unit. The subsea gas and utility swivel is based on a proven, traditional APL design, as is the turret structure itself.
This technical presentation will, in particular, discuss the following topics:
- The SSY technology features, design and layout
- System design and effects on the SSY mooring system and riser configuration for shallow water
- Submerged, high-pressure gas swivels
- Permanent vs disconnectable mooring for SSY systems
- FSRU/FLNG integration and interfaces
The paper focuses on the selection of mooring systems for FLNGs and is based on the experience gained from executing and delivering two EPC FLNG turret mooring system projects for locations off Malaysia (PFLNG1 and PFLNG2) and the current execution of the Coral South Turret Mooring off Mozambique. These mooring systems are designed accounting for both load-transfer and fluid-transfer requirements. Since they serve as the interface between the subsea infrastructure and the floating facility, the design parameters range from the fluid-transfer requirements between the reservoir to the facility, environmental conditions, water depth, floating facility, and topsides design philosophy. The paper shall provide insight into key design decisions that can lead to optimization of the mooring system and its interfaces with subsea and topsides.
This new liquefaction technology which named advanced dual refrigerant expansion cycle has been developed targeting both applications for offshore and onshore. The advanced dual refrigerant expansion cycle include three levels of expansion, each having different temperature and pressure levels. In the methane loop there are two stages, which are classified warm and cold. The warm loop and cold loop are responsible for pre-cooling and main liquefaction, respectively. The nitrogen loop is a single stage and is used for sub-cooling. As a result of case study, thermodynamic inefficiencies are minimized and the power requirements are reduced when compared to conventional methane and nitrogen refrigerant expansion cycle.
LNG has been produced in onshore liquefaction plants in the past forty years; however floating LNG solutions started to gain momentum in the recent years as a viable alternative, such as for Coral South FLNG project. The techno-commercial feasibility of the Floating LNG solution depends on several aspects; some of which are related to turbomachinery selection & design. This article will provide an insight on the challenges and solutions for turbomachinery in Coral South FLNG project, including elaboration on the technical verifications for selecting the optimum technologies which adapt with the project’s context.
DNVGL has classified the first two FLNG units to enter operation, one a purpose-built newbuild and the other a unit converted from a gas carrier. This paper will share some general insights gained in carrying out this work and will discuss some challenges which may be of interest to future FLNG projects.
This paper will discuss both regulatory and technical issues arising in such projects.
The paper discusses issues such as :
- • Regulatory expectations
- • Near shore applications
- • Accidental loads
- • In-service developments
Hyundai Heavy Industries and Bureau Veritas specialists are involved in a wide range of projects, including FSRUs perceived as a cost-effective solution to develop regasification terminals. Hi-ReGAS (Hyundai Integrated ReGASification) is a newly developed system which offers competitive advantages. The use of sea water and glycol water as heating media in the Hi-ReGAS system is more advantageous and attractive in many aspects. Bureau Veritas established a new regulation enabling the classification of all types of FSRUs. The new REGAS notation has been also implemented. Hyundai Heavy Industries got Bureau Veritas approval for the Hi-ReGAS system.
EXCELERATE ENERGY and SUMMIT GROUP will install the two first offshore FSRU’s in Bangladesh for state-owned Oil, Gas & Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla).
They both have contracted with the GEOCEAN-MAC GREGOR consortium for the design, procurement, construction and installation of the fixed infrastructures around both FSRU’s.
The scope of work of both contracts includes for subsea mooring buoy system, associated risers, offshore PLEM’s, 6 to 7 km-long import 24’’ pipelines fully trenched, shore approach and onshore PLEM.
Both projects raised significant challenges through a combination of a tight weather window, very strong marine currents, remote location and lack of local infrastructures & services.
EXMAR was the first LNG infrastructure provider to develop FSRU technology and is once again a pioneer in the LNG market by being the first to build, own and operate an FSRU barge. Barge-based solutions for FSRUs, like the one developed by EXMAR, can fill the void in the market where larger FSRUs and expensive land-based plants are out of reach for the customer. At the same time, such small-scale projects can meet the fast-track requirements of customers. The rigorous safety studies performed also help ensure installations of the FSRU at or near shore can meet local requirements and regulations. The smaller size, customized capacity and lower capital costs all benefit the smaller markets where gas needs are evident but not massive.
Assuming both a partner and competitor role with renewable energy, this panel will welcome integrated energy companies and end users to discuss the role that gas will play in companies’ long term low carbon strategies and the revolution taking place in the transport sector.
As energy companies rely increasingly on digital services, software and management, what does this mean for efficiency and streamlining of business processes? What will the seismic impact of digitalisation and artificial intelligence mean for the energy industry as a whole by 2030?
Assuming both a partner and competitor role with renewable energy, this panel will welcome integrated energy companies and end users to discuss the role that gas will play in companies’ long term low carbon strategies and the revolution taking place in the transport sector.