Exhibition & Conference

13-16 September 2021

Singapore EXPO, Singapore

Technical Programme

Mototaka Kai

Senior Research Engineer

JGC Corporation

14:30 - 15:00

Wednesday, 18 September 2019

T3.5 Study of CO2 free Ammonia as Hydrogen Energy Carrier

CO2-free hydrogen energy is expected to play an important role in bringing about a low-carbon society by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting a stable energy supply through diversification.  CO2-free ammonia is a carrier of CO2-free hydrogen, which is produced by steam reforming of fossil fuel with CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage)/ CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) or by electrolysis of water using renewable energy. Ammonia has many advantages as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier, especially the ease of transportation as a liquid, higher hydrogen density, and proven technologies for commercial and industrial scale, not only for production, storage, and transportation, but also its utilization in chemical plants and DeNOx units for electric power plants.

In December 2017, the Japanese government announced its plan to implement a “hydrogen basic strategy” that envisages the commercialization of hydrogen-, including ammonia-, fueled power generation by around 2030.

The Japanese government has been conducting the “Energy carriers" program in the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). In the program, ammonia utilization technologies such as ammonia fueled gas turbines, cofiring with coal or gas in the boiler furnace and ammonia fuel cells are being developed and demonstrated.

Especially, cost and CO2 reduction in the life cycle are key issues to utilize CO2-free ammonia fuel. In this paper, the supply chain cost of CO2-free ammonia and its life cycle assessment are summarized for power generation. 

The topics are as follows:

(1) CO2-free ammonia supply chain scheme

CO2-free ammonia is produced from natural gas reforming and the CO2 in the reforming gas and flue gas are recovered and sequestrated overseas, then transported and utilized in power generation plants in Japan.

(2) Cost evaluation of ammonia fueled power generation

The power generation cost is evaluated throughout the ammonia supply chain, from ammonia production to power generation. Under specific situations, the cost of power produced using ammonia fuel, Pre-Combustion, is competitive with that of an equivalent LNG-fired plant with CCS, Post Combustion. As the result of this study, the potential of ammonia as CO2-free fuel for power generation depends greatly on the cost including availability of CCS site near power plants, and we have conducted the sensitivity analysis with CCS cost to evaluate Pre-Combustion and Post-Combustion scenarios.

(3) Life cycle assessment of ammonia fueled power generation

Life cycle assessment is conducted for the ammonia supply chain to evaluate the effect on CO2 reduction by using ammonia fuel for power generation. As the result of this study, ammonia fuel together with CCS is more effective to reduce the CO2 emission for power generation in the Life cycle.